The FlightBridgeED Podcast

Calcium administration to trauma patients has become a hot topic with the rise of the “Lethal Diamond."  While evidence exists regarding the association between hypocalcemia and mortality, it remains unclear whether hypocalcemia is the problem or simply a finding secondary to critical injury.  In this podcast, Dr. Lauria reviews the evidence behind calcium administration in trauma and identifies which patients, given the available evidence, might benefit from calcium administration. Don't miss another FlightBridgeED Podcast feature episode of the MDCast! So much good stuff! Please like, subscribe, and leave any questions or comments.

References for the use of Calcium in Severe Trauma
  1. Chanthima P, Yuwapattanawong K, Thamjamrassri T, et al. Association Between Ionized Calcium Concentrations During Hemostatic Transfusion and Calcium Treatment With Mortality in Major Trauma. Anesth Analg. Jun 1 2021;132(6):1684-1691. doi:10.1213/ANE.0000000000005431
  2. D B. Prehospital administration of calcium in trauma J Paramed Prac. 2022;
  3. DeBot M, Sauaia A, Schaid T, Moore EE. Trauma-induced hypocalcemia. Transfusion. Aug 2022;62 Suppl 1:S274-S280. doi:10.1111/trf.16959
  4. Ditzel RM, Jr., Anderson JL, Eisenhart WJ, et al. A review of transfusion- and trauma-induced hypocalcemia: Is it time to change the lethal triad to the lethal diamond? J Trauma Acute Care Surg. Mar 2020;88(3):434-439. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000002570
  5. Giancarelli A, Birrer KL, Alban RF, Hobbs BP, Liu-DeRyke X. Hypocalcemia in trauma patients receiving massive transfusion. J Surg Res. May 1 2016;202(1):182-7. doi:10.1016/j.jss.2015.12.036
  6. Kronstedt S, Roberts N, Ditzel R, et al. Hypocalcemia as a predictor of mortality and transfusion. A scoping review of hypocalcemia in trauma and hemostatic resuscitation. Transfusion. Aug 2022;62 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S158-S166. doi:10.1111/trf.16965
  7. Leech C, Clarke E. Pre-hospital blood products and calcium replacement protocols in UK critical care services: A survey of current practice. Resusc Plus. Sep 2022;11:100282. doi:10.1016/j.resplu.2022.100282
  8. Messias Hirano Padrao E, Bustos B, Mahesh A, et al. Calcium use during cardiac arrest: A systematic review. Resusc Plus. Dec 2022;12:100315. doi:10.1016/j.resplu.2022.100315
  9. Moore HB, Tessmer MT, Moore EE, et al. Forgot calcium? Admission ionized-calcium in two civilian randomized controlled trials of prehospital plasma for traumatic hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. May 2020;88(5):588-596. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000002614
  10. Savioli G, Ceresa IF, Caneva L, Gerosa S, Ricevuti G. Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy: Overview of an Emerging Medical Problem from Pathophysiology to Outcomes. Medicines (Basel). Mar 24 2021;8(4)doi:10.3390/medicines8040016
  11. Steele T, Kolamunnage-Dona R, Downey C, Toh CH, Welters I. Assessment and clinical course of hypocalcemia in critical illness. Crit Care. Jun 4 2013;17(3):R106. doi:10.1186/cc12756
  12. Stueven H, Thompson BM, Aprahamian C, Darin JC. Use of calcium in prehospital cardiac arrest. Ann Emerg Med. Mar 1983;12(3):136-9. doi:10.1016/s0196-0644(83)80551-4
  13. Vallentin MF, Granfeldt A, Meilandt C, et al. Effect of Intravenous or Intraosseous Calcium vs Saline on Return of Spontaneous Circulation in Adults With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. Dec 14 2021;326(22):2268-2276. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.20929
  14. Vallentin MF, Povlsen AL, Granfeldt A, Terkelsen CJ, Andersen LW. Effect of calcium in patients with pulseless electrical activity and electrocardiographic characteristics potentially associated with hyperkalemia and ischemia-sub-study of the Calcium for Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest (COCA) trial. Resuscitation. Dec 2022;181:150-157. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2022.11.006
  15. Vasudeva M, Mathew JK, Groombridge C, et al. Hypocalcemia in trauma patients: A systematic review. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. Feb 1 2021;90(2):396-402. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000003027
  16. Vettorello M, Altomare M, Spota A, et al. Early Hypocalcemia in Severe Trauma: An Independent Risk Factor for Coagulopathy and Massive Transfusion. J Pers Med. Dec 28 2022;13(1)doi:10.3390/jpm13010063
  17. Wray JP, Bridwell RE, Schauer SG, et al. The diamond of death: Hypocalcemia in trauma and resuscitation. Am J Emerg Med. Mar 2021;41:104-109. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2020.12.065
  18. Zhang Z, Xu X, Ni H, Deng H. Predictive value of ionized calcium in critically ill patients: an analysis of a large clinical database MIMIC II. PLoS One. 2014;9(4):e95204. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095204

FAST24 | June 10 - 12, 2024 | Wilmington, North Carolina
FAST24 is our annual conference for pre-hospital and critical care transport professionals, including nurses, paramedics, and other disciplines. It features engaging workshops, talks by industry leaders, and focused sessions on air and surface critical care transport medicine. The event also offers a unique vendor experience, special guest appearances from notable talent in the industry, catered lunches, as well as relaxing and entertaining networking and social opportunities. Tickets are limited so don’t wait! Visit for more information.

Creators & Guests

Dr. Michael Lauria
FlightBridgeED Chief Medical Director | Content Creator/Host

What is The FlightBridgeED Podcast?

The FlightBridgeED Podcast provides convenient, easy-to-understand critical care medical education and current topics related to the air medical industry. Each topic builds on another and weaves together a solid foundation of emergency, critical care, and prehospital medicine.